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Sarcoidosis SlideShare

Lymphatic and immune system

SARCOIDOSIS - SlideShar

  1. 4. Sarc-oid-osis • sarc - flesh, • - oid - like • - osis - diseased or abnormal condition. 5. DEFINITION • Sarcoidosis is a multisystem non-caseous granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by depression of cutaneous delayed type hypersenstivity and heightened Th1 immune response in affected organs
  2. Sarcoidosis<br />. 2. Sarcoidosis<br /><ul><li>Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder characterized by the presence of noncaseatinggranulomas.</li></ul>Most affected organ is the lung<br />Skin, eyes and lymph nodes are frequently involved<br />Acute or sub acute and self limiting<br />Waxing and waning over years<br />. 3
  3. 1. SARCOIDOSIS Prof. Gamal Rabie Agmy, MD, FCCP Professor of Chest Diseases Faculty of Medicine Assiut University. 2. Definition Sarcoidosis is a granulmatous disease with multi-system organ involvement which is potentially reflective of a syndrome with different etiologies leading to similar histologic findings. Diagnosis is based upon:.
  4. Sarcoidosis 1. SARCOIDOSIS Thomas Kurian 2. Mortimer's Malady 3. Sarcoid 4. Definition Multisystem chronic inflammation characterized by non caseating granulomas. Caseating granulomas TB Non caseating granulomas Sarcoidosis 5
  5. •Sarcoidosis is defined as a systemic disorder in which granulomas, typically described as noncaseating, can be found in affected tissues or organ systems. •An important qualification is that these granulomas occur in the absence of any exogenous (infectious or environmental) agents known to be associated with granulomatous inflammation. 14
abnormal chest xray ppt

Slide 5 of 37 of SARCOIDOSIS Sarcoidosis is a systemic disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by non-caseating granulomas in multiple organs, that may resolve spontaneously or progress to fibrosis. Pulmonary manifestations are present in 90% of patients Laura Beatriz Guerrero, Interna de Medicina Hospital Obrero, Caja Nacional Nº7 TARIJA - BOLIVI SARCOIDOSIS El Dx. en 40% en individuos asintomáticos con anomalías radiográficas. El pulmón y los ganglios linfáticos intratorácicos afectados en más del 90%. En pacientes sintomáticos: malestar general, fiebre, pérdida de peso, tos seca, disnea, es raro la hemoptisis. Otros órganos afectados: ganglios linfáticos (>75%), piel (25%: eritema nudoso y placas), ojos (25%: uveítis anterior y posterior pueden dar ceguera), SNC y corazón (5%), sistema osteomuscular, médula ósea.

Verdana Arial Wingdings Calibri Centaur Century Cliff 1_Cliff Sarcoidosis Slide 2 Sarcoidosis is manifested by the presence of noncaseating granulomas (NCGs) in affected organ tissues. The modern history of sarcoidosis Epidemiology The incidence Pathophysiology The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown Sarcoidosis 1. SARCOIDOSIS 2. DEFINICIÓN Linfogranulomatosis benigna o enfermedad de Besnier, Boeck y Schaumann EPI Trastorno multisistémico, etiología desconocida, granuloma no caseoso. 3. EPIDEMIOLOGIA Enfermedad de carácter universal Prevalencia 20/100,000 habitantes La sarcoidosis es una enfermedad inflamatoria caracterizada por la presencia de granulomas no caseosos. Suele afectar múltiples órganos y sistemas, y para confirmar el diagnóstico específico se necesita que haya afección de dos o más de ellos LA SARCOIDOSIS :Es una enfermedad granulomatosa , sistémica yautoinmune , frecuente en adultos entre 20 -40 anos de cualquier sexo y raza.Etiología : Desconocida.Puede manifestarse en cualquier órgano ,especialmente en Pulmón , GangliosIntratoracicos , Ojo , Piel e Hígado

laura sofia guerrero hurtado julio 201 Slide 5 of 17 of Sarcoidosis 9 SARCOIDOSIS Systemic signs • Facial palsy • Salivary gland enlargement 10. 10 SARCOIDOSIS Systemic signs • Hilar adenopathy on chest x-ray • Lung infiltrate • Erythema nodosum • Arthritis 11. 11 SARCOIDOSIS Investigations (1) CXR - to detect pulmonary signs • Bilateral hilar lymph- adenopathy • Pulmonary mottling 12 Slideshow search results for sarcoidosis SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden

  1. Sarcoidosis Besnier Boeck Schaumann syndrom
  2. SARCOIDOSIS Dr.Md.Mizanur Rahman Chowdhur
  3. Sarcoidosis occurs most commonly in the third to fifth decades of life and, in the United States, is slightly more common in women than men [1, 2].Although sarcoidosis is seen worldwide, the frequency of the disease, organ system involved, acuity of presentation, and prognosis vary widely with geography and ethnicity
  4. ant in women than in men. MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY Course of sarcoidosis is variable, ranging from self-limited acute disease to a chronic debilatating disease
  5. Sarcoidosis Dr. Angelo Smith M.D WHPL O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies
  6. A pictorial walkthrough of Sarcoidosis
Imagenologia: Nodulo pulmonar solitario y enfermedades

MILIARY SARCOIDOSIS CT shows well defined lung nodules less than 5mm in diameter. This pattern is rare.<br /> 62. ALVEOLAR SARCOIDOSIS Multiple lung masses are an unusual form of sarcoidosis, resembles lung metastases.<br /> 63 Thyroid slideshare sarcoidosis illnesses have been reported one after the onset . of this definitely limited. This symptomatic patient will have bad effective. An increased production of energy in order blood test of the T3 and T4 thyroid hormone therapy View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Sarcoidosis PPT. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations research about Sarcoidosis PP Sarcoidosis (also known as Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease) is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomata. The disease usually begins in the lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Any organ, however, can be affected. The signs and symptoms depend on the organ involved

13 bilateral hilar enlargement

SARCOIDOSIS - slideshare

Neurosarcoidosis is a form of sarcoidosis. It is a long-term (chronic) disease of the central nervous system, which encompasses the brain, spinal cord and optic nerve, and is characterized by inflammation within one or more of those areas. This inflammation can cause the destruction of the coating (myelin) that surrounds and protects nerve fibers (axons) The Web's Daily Resource for Sarcoidosis News. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, Sarcoidosis News strives to cover various aspects of the virus and its impact on the patient community. Click the Learn More button for more information on COVID-19, including how it affects sarcoidosis patients Sarcoidosis is a relatively common multisystem disease characterized by epithelioid granulomas. Endocrine gland involvement leads to a diverse range of presentations. Hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria result primarily from the synthesis of 1,25 hydroxyvitamin-D 3 in sarcoid granulomas. Involvement of the pituitary and hypothalamus can cause.

Pulmonary sarcoidosis - slideshare

Video: Sarcoidosis - slideshare

Panuveítis

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs. It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an immune paradox with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. Despite extensive research, sarcoidosis remains a disease with undetermined aetiology Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis: Very rare Controversial if this is a distinct form of sarcoidosis Usually affects women, often with mild or no symptoms, and excellent prognosis using steroids, immunosuppressive drugs and surgery for localized lesions Resembles tuberculosis, fungal infections or granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's

The immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis has been difficult to charaterize given the heterogeneity of disease, the elusiveness of the causative antigen, and the lack of an adequate animal model. However, by examining well-defined clinical cohorts, the interplay between genetic predisposition and immuno Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Hepatic involvement of sarcoidosis was described in 11.5% of 736 patients enrolled in the ACCESS study. However, presence alone of granulomas in an organ in sarcoidosis does not dictate treatment. The decision to treat should be based on symptoms and severity of disease Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of inflammatory non-caseating granulomas within affected tissues. Histologically, the lesions characteristically demonstrate an absence of a necrotic component, except in rare cases (so-called necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis)

Sarcoidosis - es.slideshare.ne

interstitial lung disease sarcoidosis Powerpoint Presentation. Presentation Title : Interstitial Lung Disease & Sarcoidosis. Presentation Summary : No symptoms; . (30%) diagnosed incidentally because of abnormal chest x-ray or abnormal liver function tests. Respiratory & Constitutional symptoms (20-30% Sarcoidosis is a disease marked by an overactive immune system that leads to the formation of small clumps of inflammatory cells called granulomas in different tissues and organs, affecting how well they work. Over time, granulomas can become calcified or bone-like, and cause permanent damage Introduction. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory granulomatous disease of unknown etiology although current opinion favors an immune response to an as yet unknown antigen. 1 The incidence of sarcoidosis in North America is estimated at 3-10 per 100 000 among Caucasians and 35-80 per 100 000 among African Americans. 2 Although the characteristic non-caseating granulomas can occur in. Xentria Readies First Trial of XTMAB-16 for Sarcoidosis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved beginning clinical trials testing XTMAB-16, Xentria's investigational TNF-alpha inhibitor for the treatment of sarcoidosis. The first, a Phase 1 trial evaluating the therapy in healthy volunteers, is expected to start in July at. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease, so you have to ask about a lot of different things, like uveitis. Get an eye exam. Ask about palpitations, which is something that I had never really considered

Sarcoidosis - pt.slideshare.ne

Background: Naked sarcoidal granulomas (NSGs) are the characteristic histologic finding in sarcoidosis. This descriptive study was designed to identify the frequency of other histologic changes in cutaneous sarcoidosis. Methods: The slides from 28 sequential biopsies previously diagnosed as sarcoidosis in patients with known systemic sarcoidosis were reviewed Sarcoidosis is an interstitial lung disease, which is a large group of lung disorders that affect the tissues of the lungs and generally cause lung scarring. Inflammation from sarcoidosis can lead to scarring, or thickening of the walls of the lungs, making it difficult to move oxygen into (and carbon dioxide out of) the bloodstream Hepatic sarcoidosis in a patient with previously known sarcoidosis. At low power markedly distorted parenchyma is highlighted by seeing the minor component of unaffected cores [parallel to double headed arrowsD] (Row 1 Left 20X). All but the lower left part is affected by a large granuloma strewing Touton body giant cells [arrows] (Row 1 Right.

'sarcoidosis' on SlideShar

Introduction. Sarcoidosis is a highly variable, systemic granulomatous disease of hitherto unknown aetiology. Even though the disease affects people worldwide, sarcoidosis cohorts are not homogeneous, and differ in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, type of onset and organ involvement [1-5].The clinical course of sarcoidosis ranges from spontaneous resolution to disabling chronic disease, with. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown aetiology. Histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas represents the main finding. It affects mostly young people, targeting primary the lung and hilar lymph nodes although liver involvement is often encountered. Hepatic sarcoidosis covers a broad spectrum from asymptomatic hepatic. Ocular Sarcoidosis by Panagiota Stavrou, F.R.C.S. Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease which was first described by Jonathan Hutchinson in 1878. Its clinical manifestations and course can be variable in different ethnic groups. The organs affected more often are the lungs, skin and eyes This is the most common eye problem in sarcoidosis. The inflammation can occur in the iris at the front of the eye (anterior uveitis or iris inflammation), but also at the back (posterior uveitis), or even in both simultaneously (panuveitis). In posterior uveitis and panuveitis there is often inflammation also in the vitreous and on the retina

Objectives: This study sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to understand the prognostic value of myocardial scarring as evidenced by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with known or suspected cardiac sarcoidosis. Background: Although CMR is increasingly used for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis, the prognostic value. Small intestine, H&E, 40X. Virtual Slide. 030. Mesentery, H&E, 20X (muscular or medium sized arteries and companion veins, tunica intima, internal elastic lamina, tunica media, tunica adventitia). Virtual Slide. 036. Aorta , aldehyde fuchsin stain for elastin, 20X (extensive elastin in the wall) WebPathology is a free educational resource with 11200 high quality pathology images of benign and malignant neoplasms and related entities

Imaging Manifestations of Abdominal Sarcoidosis : American

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that may have more than one type of head and neck presentation, and it may mimic systemic disease such as Sjögren syndrome and lymphoma. Sarcoidosis has important intracranial as well as extracranial manifestations, including those of an infiltrating leptomeningeal and pachymeningeal process The proportion of slides with granulomas was significantly higher in stage I than in stage II (52% vs 37%, P = 0.05), whereas the proportion of inadequate slides was not different (74% vs 68%, P = 0.51). The diagnostic yield for the detection of granulomas on a per‐lymph node basis was 93.4% (43 of 46 lymph nodes) Sarcoidosis almost always affects the respiratory system. Most patients present with the classic combination of bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, parenchymal disease of the lung, and eye or skin lesions; however, virtually any organ in the body may be involved.At diagnosis, about 50% of patients are asymptomatic, 25% complain of cough or dyspnea, and 25% have or develop eye symptoms or skin. Sarcoidosis Dr Robin H Johns Consultant Respiratory Physician Queens Hospital Romford 2019 . Aetiology •Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disease of unknown cause •Due to a dysregulated immune response involving antigen, HLA type II molecules, and T-cell receptor Sarcoidosis can develop in a scar, tattoo, or body piercing. When it does, it often causes redness and swelling, as shown in this picture. The affected skin may also feel lumpy, firmer than normal, sore, or itchy. The medical name for this is scar sarcoidosis. A change to a scar, tattoo, or body piercing may be the only sign of sarcoidosis

Esclerosis

Alveolar sarcoidosis is an uncommon radiological presentation of acute pulmonary sarcoidosis (reported in 4-11% of patients) [1, 2].Affecting mostly the younger age group, it is often accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenopathy [].The galaxy sign on high-resolution CT describes the ill-defined opacities resulting from confluence of interstitial granulomas [] Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by presence of noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. The pulmonary interstitium is most commonly affected but extrapulmonary involvement can occur in almost any other organ system. Such an involvement can occur with or without the presence of pulmonary involvement, but isolated extrapulmonary.

Slideshare Sarcoidosi

Ocular Signs.-Sarcoidosis may occur in any part of the eye or ocular adnexa, but the uveal tract is the part most frequently affected. Nodules appearin the iris whichmaywhenfully formed, belarge andmorevascular than those of tuberculosis (Laval, 1952). Large clear keratic precipitates are present, often situated peripherally, andposterior synechiae mayoccur Introduction. Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. 1 The reported incidence of lymphoma in patients with sarcoidosis is 5.5-11 times higher. 2 If we exclude 'sarcoid-like reactions' that occur either adjacent to the primary malignant site or next to its local drainage nodes in patients who do not fulfill the systemic sarcoidosis. Renal sarcoidosis is thought to occur in about 35 to 50 percent of sarcoidosis patients. If left untreated, it can lead to kidney failure. Hypercalcemia, or high levels of calcium in the blood, are seen in 10-17 percent of patients with sarcoidosis, and hypercalciuria —high levels of calcium in the urine — in 40-62 percent of patients 3 Sarcoidosis: Clinical Presentations Acute Löfgren's Syndrome Fever, bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, arthritis (ankle) and erythema nodosum Chronic Subacute to chronic onset of symptoms Often cough and/or shortness of breath Systemic complaints in 25-50% arthalgias, fatigue, chest pains, muscle pain Costabel et al. Curr Opin Pulm Med.200

Ppt Sarcoidosis Powerpoint Presentations and Slides

Having sarcoidosis can turn your whole life upside-down. Dealing with chronic pain, fatigue, and other symptoms on a daily basis can affect not only your social and personal life, but also your work life. For many sarcoidosis patients, working is not an option The sensitivity of the ROSE slide interpretation for sarcoidosis was therefore 87.8% (43 out of 49; 95% CI 0.76-0.95), specificity was 90.9% (10 out of 11) and positive predictive value was 97.7% (43 out of 44). When the ROSE slide interpretation was combined with the final fixed slides.

Sarcoidosis - Wikipedi

Often, a clinician will notice signs of sarcoidosis on an x-ray that was ordered for other purposes. CT scans. A CT scan (sometimes called a CAT scan) uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the body. During a CT scan, the patient lies on a narrow table that can slide in and out of a tube-shaped scanner Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed SARCOIDOSIS- NEW treatments EMERGE Marshall TG, Marshall FE: New Treatments Emerge as Sarcoidosis Yields up its Secrets Clinmed 2003 Jan 27;2003010001 Sarcoidosis is a Th1 disease, customarily thought to be caused by inhaled allergens, but where a strong link with Mycobacteria had been demonstrated over several decades Often, a clinician will notice signs of sarcoidosis on an x-ray that was ordered for other purposes. CT scans: uses x-rays to create cross-sectional pictures of the body. During a CT scan, the patient lies on a narrow table that can slide in and out of a tube-shaped scanner Sarcoidosis (SAR-coy-DOH-sis) is an inflammatory disease characterized by granulomas (small rounded outgrowths made up of blood vessels, cells, and connective tissues) that can produce many different symptoms. It is generally a chronic disease, lasting for several years or a lifetime. Some people, however, may have a type that only lasts a few.

Granulomas pulmonares:

1911 .45 Cal Builders Kit All Parts Less Frame Includes New Slide. $279.95. more info Quick view. 1911 Frame Casting 1911 P14 Wide body steel double action frame casting. $24.95 more info Quick view Add to Cart. 1911 Single Stack 1911 Type Double Action Frame Casting. To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and. The mechanism for NOD1/CARD4 is similar. 17, 18 In Blau-syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis, however, there is rather a gain-of-function mutation in the same genes with an increased NF-κB activity. 19 Sato et al. reported an association between two NOD2 polymorphisms and a severe pulmonary sarcoidosis subtype, whereas others could not find an. Sarcoidosis is a systemic, chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that commonly affects the lungs [].Whereas some patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis are asymptomatic, many report cough, dyspnea, fatigue, unintentional weight loss, and night sweats [].Because of its nonspecific symptomology, computed tomographic (CT) scans are instrumental for diagnosis [1, 2] ERS guidelines on treatment of sarcoidosis. 23 June, 2021 | 18:00-19:00 CEST. Chair: Prof. Dominique Valeyre (Paris, France) Speakers: Dr Robert P. Baughman (Cincinnati, USA) Case presentation: Dr Paola Rottoli (Siena, Italy), Dr Peter Korsten (Göttingen, Germany) Register. This is an update of treatment from the 1999 Task Force report

Neurosarcoidosis Cedars-Sina

Histopathology Lung--Sarcoidosis A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS) enrolled 736 patients with sarcoidosis within 6 mo of diagnosis from 10 clinical centers in the United States. Using the ACCESS sarcoidosis assessment system, we determined organ involvement for the whole group and for subgroups differentiated by sex, race, and age (less than 40 yr or 40 yr. Sarcoidosis is the classic GD that affects the salivary glands, and 6%-30% of patients with sarcoidosis show parotid gland involvement (28,62). At CT and MR imaging, the parotid glands in patients with sarcoidosis may show multiple benign-appearing, noncavitating, intraparotid masses (foamy parotids) or diffuse glandular enlargement. Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that is associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in one or multiple organ systems. Skin involvement is seen in approximately 25% of patients.

COVID-19 and Sarcoidosis - Sarcoidosis New

Introduction. Because the initial presentation of cardiac sarcoidosis can range from asymptomatic electrocardiographic abnormalities to sudden death, the cardiac electrophysiologist is an integral part of the multidisciplinary team taking care of sarcoidosis patients The cPET scan (Image 2) showed areas of enhanced uptake in the basal anteroseptal and basal inferolateral myocardial segments concerning for myocardial inflammation and hence, a diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis along with pericarditis was established. Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (leflunomide and methotrexate) were prescribed

Psoriatic arthritisAnamnesis, Signos Y SíNtomas

In a randomized trial aimed at comparing the success rates of EBUS‐TBNA versus conventional TBNA in sarcoidosis, 15 Tremblay et al . demonstrated that the yield for the identification of granulomas was fairly different when two pathologists with different experience in lung cytology interpreted the same slides from the same patients. 15 In. Hypercalciuria and hypercalcaemia constitute the major problems in renal sarcoidosis, with a prevalence of 40-62% [ 7], whereas GIN and renal tubular defects are clinically insidious and ignored frequently. To our knowledge, this is the first case report showing acquired Bartter-like syndrome in renal sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease resulting in the formation of noncaseating granulomas that can infiltrate the myocardium. Sarcoidosis is associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy in 5% of patients and can later progress to dilated cardiomyopathy. Sarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose unless there is other organ involvement (usually pulmonary) Cardiac sarcoidosis is a manifestation of systemic sarcoid disease that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of clinically evident cardiac involvement is ~5%, though this may be an underestimation given the difficulties of diagnosing cardiac sarcoidosis. 1,2 The autopsy data suggest that cardiac involvement is 20-25%

WebPathology is a free educational resource with 11186 high quality pathology images of benign and malignant neoplasms and related entities A total of 736 patients with sarcoidosis were enrolled in the study. Patients were excluded from the study if they did not have a compatible history and physical examination. In addi-tion, all pathology slides were reviewed by designated pathol-ogist for each site, and we included only those patients i sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, and ischemic heart disease. Although coronary atherosclerosis and resulting myocardial infarction are the most com-mon causes of left heart failure in the United States, numerous other pathologic processes, of-ten with overlapping clinical manifestations, can result in compromised cardiac function. Delaye Sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease involving multiple organ systems including the lungs, kidneys, skin, joints, muscles, and eyes , , . Data from A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS), which registered 736 patients, demonstrated pulmonary and skin involvement in 95% and 15.9% of cases, respectively Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) may be the first manifestation of sarcoidosis in any organ, and generally the prognosis is worse when the heart is involved. Echocardiographic abnormalities tend to be nonspecific and variable; interventricular thinning (particularly basal) is the most typical feature of CS. Less commonly an increase in myocardial wall. Impact of sarcoidosis. Several features in sarcoidosis phenotypes, Lofgren's syndrome (LS) and non-Lofgren's syndrome (non-LS), such as the variability in the clinical presentation and the lack of case definitions of disease - pose a challenge for epidemiological studies to deduce underlying causes of disease and etiology since these features are ascertainment bias